The methods used for representing syllables that did not have distinctive graphs were quite unsystematic. The earliest stages of development are still a matter of much speculation based on fragmentary evidence.
Western scripts went farthest in the phonographic direction, representing words by means of syllables and syllables by means of consonantal writing systems and eventually developing a full vocalic alphabet.
The economy of representation comes from the fact that a large number of syllables can be generated from a small set of these constituents. The Phoenician alphabet also influenced the Hebrew and Aramaic scripts, which follow a vowel-less system.
Frankismoan jazarpen latza pairatu ondoren, XX. However, scholars agree that such a collection of signs could express only an extremely limited set of meanings.
While all Western writing systems may be traced back to the beginnings of symbol making in Sumer, there is no reason to believe that Asian writing systems were borrowed from the Sumerian form. Even Aristotle used the same word, gramma, to refer to the basic units of both speech and writing.
Consonantal writing systemsas the name implies, represent the consonantal value of a syllable while ignoring the vocalic element.
These poems were produced by bards who could not write and were delivered in recitals to audiences who could not read. If you get something like AE5,Ex26Y etc.
How can I learn to write them? One Hebrew script was only used for religious literature and by a small community of Samaritans up until the sixth century BC. The Quenya vowel i is written with a single dot placed above the previous consonant. Scholars have traditionally considered the Greek invention as a stroke of genius.
For this reason, writing has almost always been the means not only for transcribing speech but also for uncovering its underlying structure. Although spoken Chinese continues to include many possible meanings for a given syllable, the written form became unambiguous. But the boundary between pictures and writing becomes less clear when pictures are used conventionally to convey particular meanings.
Light pressure is usually done on the side and up stroke and the heavier hand pressure is on the down stroke.
Moreover, words may consist simply of vowels, words may begin with vowels, and words with adjacent vowels are not uncommon. A syllabary such as Linear Bthe Mycenaean script dating from about bce, would have a graph for each of those syllables.
Moreover, these markings are more or less similar to the shapes drawn on clay tablets that date back to about bce and that are unambiguously related to the Sumerian language.
Just as linguists have abandoned the notion of progressive evolution of languages, with some languages ranking as more primitive than others, so historians of writing have come to treat existing orthographies as appropriate to the languages they represent.
Further developments of the alphabet resulted from changes in the phonology of Latin and of the Romance languages that evolved from it. In kun writing Chinese characters were used to represent Japanese words that have a similar meaning, while other characters were adopted to represent sounds.
Finally, a writing system such as Hangulbased upon the articulatory features that underlie the phoneme such as voicing and place of articulationis called a featural writing system.
Because of this, a number of various new forms of cursive italic appeared, including Getty-Dubayand Barchowsky Fluent Handwriting. It apparently also avoids the problem TengScribe is reported to have with displaying tehtar under Windows and XP.
The hard and fast dividing line that put civilization and literacy on one side and savagery and irrationality on the other has been abandoned. It is for these reasons that writing is said to be a system for transcribing language, not for representing thought directly. To this day they are used in books written to be read by beginning readers and in poetry and other writings of which the prior knowledge of the reader may not be sufficient to reduce the residual ambiguity.
The multiplication of types of tokens could correspond to the increase in the number of kinds of goods that were exchanged with the rise of urbanization in the 4th millennium bce. This fact has led some scholars, notably Gelb and Havelock, to claim that Semitic scripts are not true alphabets but rather unvocalized syllabaries.
Featural writing systems analyze the sounds described as consonants and vowels into their shared and distinguishing features. Until the 20th century the normal medium of written communication was in Chinese, using the Chinese writing system. It is with such factors in mind that late 20th-century accounts of writing systems stressed how many different orthographies may function efficiently, given the particular language they are used to represent.
Tolkien is known to have used the reverse arrangement as well, but to ensure readability, it is probably better to use the accent seen above for e and the dot for i. This can be compared to how Tolkien wrote his first name John in the LotR title page inscription. The Sumerian script, however, remained primarily logographic and resorted to phonographic signs only when forced to, for representing unpicturable words and for distinguishing ambiguous graphs.
It must be remembered, however, that efficiency depends not only on the nature of the writing system but also on the functions required of it by its users, for orthographies are invented to serve particular cultural purposes.
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